The following argument has been numbered. To indicate your knowledge of the important features of correct argumentation, use the numbers assigned to draw an arrow diagram that accurately reflects the flow of the argument.
(1) The demand for organ transplant has grown steeply over time and across the globe. However, (2) growth in the supply of donated organs has been modest, at best; this suggests that (3) current policies that encourage organ donation by appealing to the altruistic instincts of individuals is failing. Thus, as a result of the growth in demand, the ineffectiveness of the current regime, and the fact that (4) nothing can be done to reduce the demand, (5) it is imperative that we consider alternative approaches to increasing organ supply. Since (6) history suggests that the problem of shortages in scarce goods is best solved by creating a free market in those goods, it follows that (7) the purchase and sale of organs should be legalised.
Consider the following argument:
“North Korea can be persuaded to roll back its nuclear programme only if America stops conducting military exercises with South Korea. But, if the Americans’ fear of China remains strong, then America will not stop these exercises. Further, if North Korea can’t be persuaded to compromise on its nuclear programme, then there will either be continued instability in the Far East or a rebellion might overthrow the regime in North Korea. But, there is good reason to believe that the Americans’ fear of China will not abate in the near future. In addition, it is highly unlikely that a rebellion will happen in North Korea. So, we are bound to witness continued instability in the Far East.”
In the context of this argument, you are required to do the following: (a) Assign letters of the alphabet to each simple statement in the argument;
(b) Then, using the letters assigned, outline the argument in recognisable deductive forms identifying clearly its premises, the conclusion and any intermediate conclusion that can be validly inferred; and
(c) Evaluate whether the argument is valid.
(250 words max)
Read the passage “Equal Pay and Unequal Income in Tennis.”
and answer the following questions.
(a) In your own words, identify what the author’s conclusion is, and identify his reasons for concluding as he does. [Remember that the conclusion need not be explicitly stated in the passage. To answer this part correctly, you must be able to list the differences between statements and non-statements to distinguish between the relevant and nonrelevant parts of the argument.] (100 words max)
(b) Demonstrate and explain the strong and weak points of the author’s argument. (150 words max)
(c) This part of the question requires you to do the following in a single response. State whether you agree or disagree with the author’s conclusion. Depending on what you choose, write an argument of your own defending or attacking the author’s conclusion. [Regardless of what you choose, your argument must handle both the strong and weak points of the argument identified in (b) above (for example, if you decide to support the author’s conclusion, you must make the strong points of the author’s argument stronger and defend the weak points). You will receive more credit if you come up with additional reasons (those not in the passage) in support of your conclusion.]
(500 words max)
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